Columbia VA Loans

COLUMBIA, SC

A VA loan is a mortgage loan that’s backed by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for those who have served or are presently serving in the U.S. military. The VA does directly lend, it guarantees the loans made by private lenders to veterans, active military personnel, and qualifying military spouses.

The most obvious benefit of VA loans is that no downpayment is necessary to purchase a home. They will also typically have significantly lower fees-- meaning that if you're eligible to receive a VA loan, it will likely be the most favorable option. VA loans come in 3 varities: purchase, refinance and cash out refis.

For additional benefits of VA loans, click here.

Columbia's 203 lenders originated 7,142 VA loans during 2021. The total origination value was $1,785,300,000, with an average VA loan value of $249,972.

Columbia VA Loans, 30 Year Fixed Rates

30 Year VA mortgages in Columbia averaged 5.7% for the week of 2022-05-13, compared to the national average (all VA variants) of 5.158% for the same period.

The average rate for the prior week (2022-05-06) was 5.43% and one month ago for the week of 2022-04-08, the average rate was 5.15%.

The average rate one year ago was 3.27%.

For refis of the same type during the week of 2022-05-13, the average rate was 5.12%.

Click on whitespace and scroll within the chart to zoom in/out. Larger bubbles equate with more originations.

Columbia VA Loan Lenders by Rates & Fees

The below table looks at the average fees and rates for VA 30 Year Fixed Rate (purchase, first lien) mortgages originated by each lender at the Columbia level.

Name # of Loans 2021 Avg. 30yFix Rate 2021 Avg. Total Fees
FREEDOM MORTGAGE CORPORATION 521 2.50% $3,050
QUICKEN LOANS, LLC 481 2.45% $4,092
Mortgage Research Center, LLC 476 2.88% $5,991
GUILD MORTGAGE COMPANY 451 2.80% $6,393
PENNYMAC LOAN SERVICES, LLC 271 2.46% $5,128
NAVY FEDERAL CREDIT UNION 176 2.49% $5,426
NEW DAY FINANCIAL, LLC 150 2.85% $6,477
Ameris Bank 146 2.67% $5,578
GUARANTEED RATE AFFINITY, LLC 141 2.73% $4,941
USAA Federal Savings Bank 136 2.86% $4,483
UNITED WHOLESALE MORTGAGE, LLC 135 2.60% $4,873
LOANDEPOT.COM, LLC 129 2.78% $4,956
VANDERBILT MORTGAGE AND FINANCE, INC. 125 2.83% $5,906
BROKER SOLUTIONS, INC. 122 2.92% $5,442
MOVEMENT MORTGAGE, LLC 117 2.78% $4,342
VILLAGE CAPITAL & INVESTMENT LLC 111 2.34% $3,849
Wells Fargo Bank 107 2.47% $4,088
RESOURCE FINANCIAL SERVICES, INC. 106 2.78% $5,792
Mr. Cooper ( Nationstar Mortgage ) 105 2.81% $4,034
LENDUS, LLC 102 3.06% $6,454
CALIBER HOME LOANS, INC. 99 2.71% $4,334
DHI MORTGAGE COMPANY, LTD. 97 2.59% $7,132
CLEARPATH LENDING 91 2.41% $4,690
LAKEVIEW LOAN SERVICING, LLC 88 2.53% $2,494
SUCCESS MORTGAGE PARTNERS, INC. 74 2.92% $6,533
First Heritage Mortgage, LLC 61 2.82% $7,359
Carrington Mortgage Services, LLC 61 3.41% $4,013
MORTGAGE SOLUTIONS OF COLORADO, LLC 58 3.10% $3,102
HOME POINT FINANCIAL CORPORATION 58 2.55% $3,553
CARDINAL FINANCIAL COMPANY, LIMITED PARTNERSHIP 50 2.86% $5,853
Low VA Rates, LLC 48 2.53% $4,095
PENTAGON FEDERAL CREDIT UNION 40 2.42% $3,370
The Federal Savings Bank 37 2.69% $6,214
Lakeview Community Capital, LLC 36 2.56% $2,335
Magnolia Bank 36 2.64% $7,067
NEWREZ LLC 34 2.79% $4,145
PRIMELENDING, A PLAINSCAPITAL COMPANY 33 3.29% $5,908
Network Funding, L.P. 33 3.02% $6,412
AMERISAVE MORTGAGE CORPORATION 32 2.59% $4,937
CROSSCOUNTRY MORTGAGE, LLC 32 2.97% $7,116
AMERICAN FINANCIAL NETWORK, INC. 32 2.61% $8,161
Mortgage Network, Inc. 31 2.73% $7,484
Regions Bank 29 2.82% $8,182
MIDLAND MORTGAGE CORPORATION 28 3.10% $5,144
Assurance Financial Group, L.L.C. 28 2.87% $6,982
ANGEL OAK HOME LOANS LLC 26 2.93% $6,804
NP, Inc. 24 2.43% $5,238
FAIRWAY INDEPENDENT MORTGAGE CORPORATION 23 3.09% $5,139
NVR Mortgage Finance, Inc. 21 2.94% $5,168
INTERCOASTAL MORTGAGE COMPANY 20 2.74% $4,646
ACCELERATE MORTGAGE, LLC 18 2.25% $4,666
InterContinental Capital Group, Inc 18 2.47% $3,924
BAY EQUITY LLC 18 2.96% $5,451
PLANET HOME LENDING, LLC 18 2.58% $2,403
GUARANTEED RATE, INC. 17 2.71% $7,279
First Federal Bank 17 3.27% $7,927
First Guaranty Mortgage Corporation 17 2.49% $3,468
TOWNE MORTGAGE COMPANY 16 2.86% $5,119
Barrington Bank & Trust Company, N.A. 16 3.02% $9,134
Renasant Bank 16 2.80% $7,182
CMG MORTGAGE, INC. 16 2.96% $6,758
North American Savings Bank, F.S.B. 15 2.41% $2,687
NBKC BANK 15 2.55% $4,273
CERTAINTY HOME LOANS, LLC 15 3.08% $4,314
Trustmark National Bank 15 2.71% $8,110
NTFN, INC. 14 3.04% $4,995
MUTUAL OF OMAHA MORTGAGE, INC. 13 2.99% $4,911
SUN WEST MORTGAGE COMPANY, INC. 13 2.40% $4,344
KELLER MORTGAGE, LLC 13 2.63% $5,627
NATIONS DIRECT MORTGAGE, LLC 13 3.40% $4,055
First Palmetto Bank 12 2.88% $6,018
Equity Prime Mortgage LLC 11 3.17% $4,137
Flagstar Bank, FSB 10 2.91% $7,929
CONTOUR MORTGAGE CORPORATION 10 2.75% $4,539
Wyndham Capital Mortgage, Inc. 9 2.40% $2,728
First-Citizens Bank & Trust Company 9 2.47% $4,752
TD Bank 8 2.92% $5,025
BNC National Bank 8 2.30% $5,133
First Reliance Bank 8 2.67% $5,210
Citizens Bank 8 2.83% $4,251
Nations Lending Corporation 8 3.11% $9,974
INTERLINC MORTGAGE SERVICES, LLC 8 3.41% $3,836
RELIANCE FIRST CAPITAL, LLC 7 2.84% $9,480
GENEVA FINANCIAL, LLC 7 2.96% $8,500
LOANPAL, LLC 7 2.77% $6,594
TJC Mortgage, Inc. 7 2.27% $4,464
SOVEREIGN LENDING GROUP INCORPORATED 7 2.54% $6,092
CALCON MUTUAL MORTGAGE LLC 7 3.61% $9,923
American Security Mortgage Corp. 7 2.84% $6,027
South State Bank 6 2.50% $5,547
Southern First Bank 6 2.52% $3,174
AmeriHome Mortgage Company, LLC 6 3.08% $2,097
Truist Bank 6 2.67% $2,198
AMERICAN FINANCING CORPORATION 6 2.52% $3,473
AMCAP MORTGAGE, LTD. 6 3.02% $5,823
U.S. Bank 6 2.73% $5,469
SOUTHWEST FUNDING, LP 6 3.25% $11,697
PANORAMA MORTGAGE GROUP, LLC 5 3.73% $6,794
First Home Bank 5 3.08% $5,827
First Mortgage Solutions, LLC 5 2.40% $8,794
Paramount Residential Mortgage Group, Inc. 5 3.03% $4,240
HOMEBRIDGE FINANCIAL SERVICES, INC. 5 2.68% $5,846
HOMESTAR FINANCIAL CORPORATION 4 3.00% $8,528
SUMMIT FUNDING, INC. 4 3.09% $8,099
Prosperity Home Mortgage, LLC 4 2.84% $4,009
SOUTHERN TRUST MORTGAGE, LLC 4 2.78% $3,341
UNION HOME MORTGAGE CORP. 4 2.38% $8,603
PHH Mortgage Corporation 4 3.00% $3,438
ATLANTIC BAY MORTGAGE GROUP, L.L.C. 4 2.88% $4,525
Mid-Continent Funding, Inc. 4 2.66% $8,533
AMERICAN FINANCIAL RESOURCES, INC. 4 3.31% $2,378
HOMESIDE FINANCIAL, LLC 4 3.19% $4,080
T2 FINANCIAL LLC 3 3.04% $11,482
Gateway First Bank 3 2.67% $4,903
KS StateBank 3 2.50% $8,141
Strong Home Mortgage, LLC 3 2.37% $10,128
LIBERTY HOME MORTGAGE CORPORATION 3 2.63% $8,399
FINANCE OF AMERICA MORTGAGE LLC 3 2.58% $4,030
First Community Bank 3 2.88% $4,925
ARK-LA-TEX FINANCIAL SERVICES, LLC. 3 2.96% $13,151
Paramount Bank 3 2.46% $8,637
HOMEOWNERS FINANCIAL GROUP USA, LLC 3 3.58% $2,799
EMBRACE HOME LOANS, INC. 3 2.50% $2,897
BANKSOUTH MORTGAGE COMPANY, LLC 2 2.25% $5,382
1ST SIGNATURE LENDING, LLC 2 2.38% $3,981
ALLIED MORTGAGE GROUP, INC. 2 2.50% $2,032
AMERICAN PACIFIC MORTGAGE CORPORATION 2 3.19% $4,323
Armed Forces Bank 2 2.63% $8,893
Bank of England 2 2.50% $7,831
1ST PREFERENCE MORTGAGE CORP. 2 3.00% $2,062
CANOPY MORTGAGE, LLC 2 2.44% $2,002
Capital Bank 2 2.25% $2,491
CHURCHILL MORTGAGE CORPORATION 2 2.38% $2,659
CityWorth Mortgage LLC 2 3.31% $7,635
CORNERSTONE HOME LENDING, INC. 2 2.63% $12,689
FIRST COMMUNITY MORTGAGE, INC. 2 3.63% $7,059
First Savings Bank 2 2.25% $3,987
HOMESTEAD FUNDING CORP. 2 2.25% $1,459
LENOX FINANCIAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION 2 2.81% $8,889
Manufacturers and Traders Trust Company 2 2.81% $3,447
Meridian Bank Corporation 2 2.25% $6,175
Northpointe Bank 2 2.69% $6,184
PLAZA HOME MORTGAGE, INC. 2 2.50% $2,018
POLARIS HOME FUNDING CORP. 2 2.88% $16,849
RAPID MORTGAGE COMPANY 2 3.13% $8,859
Texana Bank 2 2.50% $9,120
NATIONWIDE MORTGAGE BANKERS, INC. 1 2.75% $11,995
AmRes Corporation 1 4.75% $5,849
Willamette Valley Bank 1 2.25% $3,667
PREMIA MORTGAGE, LLC 1 2.25% $1,649
Presidential Bank, FSB 1 2.25% $1,731
Prime Choice Funding Inc. 1 2.25% $4,402
MID AMERICA MORTGAGE, INC. 1 2.50% $1,443
LOANLEADERS OF AMERICA, INC. 1 2.25% $3,085
Queensborough National Bank & Trust Company 1 2.50% $12,179
LEADERONE FINANCIAL CORPORATION 1 2.75% $5,024
Alpha Mortgage Corporation 1 3.13% $2,954
Hometown Equity Mortgage, LLC 1 2.75% $3,167
GUARANTY HOME MORTGAGE CORPORATION 1 3.00% $4,653
George Mason Mortgage, LLC 1 2.49% $7,930
RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE SERVICES, INC. 1 3.25% $3,382
FLAT BRANCH MORTGAGE, INC. 1 3.38% $4,732
ROUNDPOINT MORTGAGE SERVICING CORPORATION 1 3.25% $5,336
SeaTrust Mortgage Company 1 2.38% $9,302
SHELTER LENDING SERVICES, L.L.C. 1 2.99% $4,730
First Midwest Bank 1 2.38% $9,770
First Horizon Bank 1 2.38% $10,246
First Federal Bank of Kansas City 1 2.75% $3,746
First Federal Bank 1 2.13% $2,271
SOUTHWEST STAGE FUNDING, LLC 1 3.88% $0
FirstBank 1 2.50% $651
STEARNS LENDING, LLC 1 2.25% $3,001
Farmers & Stockmens Bank 1 2.50% $1,061
FAMILY FIRST FUNDING LLC 1 4.13% $447
Encompass Lending Group, LP 1 2.50% $17,391
EMM LOANS LLC 1 3.75% $15,753
SWBC MORTGAGE CORPORATION 1 3.25% $4,172
Synovus Bank 1 2.63% $906
DIRECT MORTGAGE LOANS, LLC 1 3.63% $17,249
Community First National Bank 1 2.88% $2,838
ZILLOW HOME LOANS, LLC 1 2.25% $2,411
Commonwealth Bank and Trust Company 1 3.13% $5,246
The Huntington National Bank 1 2.75% $1,749
THE MORTGAGE FIRM, INC. 1 2.63% $5,975
Colten Mortgage, LLC 1 2.38% $1,826
CHERRY CREEK MORTGAGE, LLC 1 2.50% $2,812
CELEBRITY HOME LOANS, LLC 1 3.25% $4,041
Capital City Home Loans, LLC 1 2.75% $3,874
UMB Bank 1 2.75% $1,755
CAPITAL CENTER, L.L.C. 1 3.00% $6,888
United Bank 1 2.88% $7,302
United Community Bank 1 3.00% $12,201
Blue Ridge Bank 1 2.50% $4,368
Austin Capital Bank SSB 1 3.13% $11,023
AUGUSTA MORTGAGE CO. 1 2.63% $6,890
Uwharrie Bank 1 3.00% $1,567
Atlantic Coast Mortgage, LLC 1 2.25% $6,451
VERITAS FUNDING, LLC 1 2.75% $8,589
ARC HOME LLC 1 2.50% $2,270
Palmetto Citizens Federal Credit Union 1 2.38% $11,949
OVM FINANCIAL, INC. 1 2.75% $95
NBH Bank 1 2.75% $6,711
Plains Commerce Bank 1 3.13% $7,126

The top Columbia VA lender as defined by loan originations is FREEDOM MORTGAGE CORPORATION, with 521 VA loans originated. Their average total fees are $3,050, which is $1,043 lower than the next largest lender, QUICKEN LOANS, LLC.

The lowest fee Columbia VA lenders (with over 10 loans originated) are Lakeview Community Capital, LLC ($2,335), PLANET HOME LENDING, LLC ($2,403), LAKEVIEW LOAN SERVICING, LLC ($2,494), North American Savings Bank, F.S.B. ($2,687) and FREEDOM MORTGAGE CORPORATION ($3,050).

The lowest rate Columbia VA lenders (with over 10 loans originated) are ACCELERATE MORTGAGE, LLC (2.25%), VILLAGE CAPITAL & INVESTMENT LLC (2.34%), SUN WEST MORTGAGE COMPANY, INC. (2.40%), North American Savings Bank, F.S.B. (2.41%) and CLEARPATH LENDING (2.41%).


Market Conditions (Median, Average Prices & Listing Count)

Realtor.com - Columbia (CBSA) retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Date Median Listing Price (YoY Change) Average Listing Price (YoY) MSA/US Median Price Ratio Active Listings
2018-01-01 $198,450 (5.5%) $248,447 (5.7%) 0.73 3,391
2018-02-01 $197,750 (8.4%) $250,266 (-4.6%) 0.71 3,342
2018-03-01 $199,990 (9.1%) $258,713 (14.0%) 0.69 3,391
2018-04-01 $210,950 (8.2%) $262,507 (6.6%) 0.71 3,441
2018-05-01 $215,450 (8.2%) $270,357 (8.5%) 0.72 3,393
2018-06-01 $225,000 (13.1%) $276,496 (10.7%) 0.75 3,411
2018-07-01 $224,900 (13.0%) $276,982 (10.2%) 0.75 3,574
2018-08-01 $220,995 (10.8%) $272,867 (7.8%) 0.74 3,521
2018-09-01 $222,192 (11.8%) $272,157 (7.7%) 0.74 3,465
2018-10-01 $220,750 (10.4%) $296,439 (17.2%) 0.74 3,455
2018-11-01 $226,695 (13.4%) $272,252 (8.7%) 0.76 3,378
2018-12-01 $229,900 (15.5%) $274,385 (10.5%) 0.79 3,187
2019-01-01 $228,200 (15.0%) $268,546 (8.1%) 0.79 3,058
2019-02-01 $226,945 (14.8%) $269,062 (7.5%) 0.76 3,089
2019-03-01 $234,134 (17.1%) $276,127 (6.7%) 0.76 3,023
2019-04-01 $239,843 (13.7%) $284,484 (8.4%) 0.76 2,974
2019-05-01 $239,000 (10.9%) $284,953 (5.4%) 0.74 3,020
2019-06-01 $239,000 (6.2%) $284,559 (2.9%) 0.74 3,067
2019-07-01 $234,950 (4.5%) $281,304 (1.6%) 0.73 3,161
2019-08-01 $232,710 (5.3%) $280,076 (2.6%) 0.73 3,084
2019-09-01 $229,945 (3.5%) $278,642 (2.4%) 0.73 2,957
2019-10-01 $227,250 (2.9%) $278,544 (-6.0%) 0.72 3,013
2019-11-01 $228,000 (0.6%) $279,808 (2.8%) 0.74 2,939
2019-12-01 $227,188 (-1.2%) $279,069 (1.7%) 0.76 2,823
2020-01-01 $228,240 (0.0%) $277,050 (3.2%) 0.76 2,632
2020-02-01 $232,935 (2.6%) $278,901 (3.7%) 0.75 2,533
2020-03-01 $239,500 (2.3%) $287,698 (4.2%) 0.75 2,376
2020-04-01 $242,080 (0.9%) $291,562 (2.5%) 0.75 2,423
2020-05-01 $247,000 (3.4%) $298,988 (4.9%) 0.75 2,206
2020-06-01 $249,450 (4.4%) $300,869 (5.7%) 0.73 1,905
2020-07-01 $249,950 (6.4%) $304,497 (8.2%) 0.72 1,755
2020-08-01 $250,000 (7.4%) $309,396 (10.5%) 0.71 1,623
2020-09-01 $249,900 (8.7%) $303,892 (9.1%) 0.71 1,575
2020-10-01 $244,990 (7.8%) $295,854 (6.2%) 0.70 1,549
2020-11-01 $249,900 (9.6%) $301,054 (7.6%) 0.72 1,481
2020-12-01 $249,945 (10.0%) $301,164 (7.9%) 0.73 1,355
2021-01-01 $247,889 (8.6%) $302,994 (9.4%) 0.73 1,210
2021-02-01 $249,595 (7.2%) $305,268 (9.5%) 0.72 1,051
2021-03-01 $251,042 (4.8%) $313,746 (9.1%) 0.70 900
2021-04-01 $262,650 (8.5%) $324,662 (11.4%) 0.71 805
2021-05-01 $256,900 (4.0%) $320,652 (7.3%) 0.68 770
2021-06-01 $254,900 (2.2%) $318,235 (5.8%) 0.66 840
2021-07-01 $262,500 (5.0%) $325,587 (6.9%) 0.68 995
2021-08-01 $271,245 (8.5%) $333,236 (7.7%) 0.71 1,148
2021-09-01 $274,950 (10.0%) $342,313 (12.6%) 0.72 1,184
2021-10-01 $279,900 (14.3%) $344,233 (16.4%) 0.74 1,225
2021-11-01 $289,925 (16.0%) $351,777 (16.9%) 0.76 1,123
2021-12-01 $296,000 (18.4%) $357,909 (18.8%) 0.79 1,083
2022-01-01 $299,900 (21.0%) $362,473 (19.6%) 0.80 921
2022-02-01 $300,110 (20.2%) $364,732 (19.5%) 0.76 818
2022-03-01 $303,900 (21.1%) $358,293 (14.2%) 0.75 809
2022-04-01 $305,900 (16.5%) $363,784 (12.1%) 0.72 813
Columbia's median listing price for 2022-04-01 was $305,900, a difference of $43,250 (16.5%) versus the prior year and $2,000 versus the prior month.

Columbia's median listing price comes in at 72% of the national average.

Columbia's average listing price for 2022-04-01 was $363,784, a difference of $39,122 (12.1%) versus the prior year and $5,491 versus the prior month.

For the 2022-04-01 period, Columbia had 813 MLS listings, a difference of 4 listings (0%) versus the prior month and 8 listings (1%) versus the prior year.

Median Listing Time on Market & Square Footage

Realtor.com - Columbia (CBSA) retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Date Median Listing Time on Market Median Square Footage
2018-01-01 79 days 2,150 sqft
2018-02-01 73 days 2,155 sqft
2018-03-01 59 days 2,206 sqft
2018-04-01 56 days 2,239 sqft
2018-05-01 54 days 2,246 sqft
2018-06-01 56 days 2,278 sqft
2018-07-01 58 days 2,277 sqft
2018-08-01 60 days 2,247 sqft
2018-09-01 66 days 2,227 sqft
2018-10-01 72 days 2,228 sqft
2018-11-01 77 days 2,249 sqft
2018-12-01 83 days 2,261 sqft
2019-01-01 83 days 2,241 sqft
2019-02-01 71 days 2,233 sqft
2019-03-01 58 days 2,246 sqft
2019-04-01 56 days 2,257 sqft
2019-05-01 54 days 2,246 sqft
2019-06-01 53 days 2,254 sqft
2019-07-01 51 days 2,241 sqft
2019-08-01 56 days 2,229 sqft
2019-09-01 57 days 2,230 sqft
2019-10-01 57 days 2,216 sqft
2019-11-01 60 days 2,213 sqft
2019-12-01 69 days 2,205 sqft
2020-01-01 70 days 2,200 sqft
2020-02-01 60 days 2,225 sqft
2020-03-01 50 days 2,241 sqft
2020-04-01 46 days 2,249 sqft
2020-05-01 55 days 2,250 sqft
2020-06-01 51 days 2,251 sqft
2020-07-01 46 days 2,247 sqft
2020-08-01 41 days 2,246 sqft
2020-09-01 39 days 2,236 sqft
2020-10-01 37 days 2,197 sqft
2020-11-01 43 days 2,220 sqft
2020-12-01 45 days 2,207 sqft
2021-01-01 43 days 2,120 sqft
2021-02-01 33 days 2,065 sqft
2021-03-01 24 days 2,037 sqft
2021-04-01 21 days 2,049 sqft
2021-05-01 19 days 2,017 sqft
2021-06-01 16 days 1,988 sqft
2021-07-01 18 days 2,016 sqft
2021-08-01 22 days 2,054 sqft
2021-09-01 26 days 2,076 sqft
2021-10-01 29 days 2,125 sqft
2021-11-01 33 days 2,172 sqft
2021-12-01 39 days 2,199 sqft
2022-01-01 44 days 2,168 sqft
2022-02-01 27 days 2,080 sqft
2022-03-01 21 days 2,015 sqft
2022-04-01 18 days 2,000 sqft
Columbia's median listing age (time on market) for 2022-04-01 was 18 days. This is -12% shorter than the same period one year ago.

Columbia's median square footage for active listings during the 2022-04-01 period was 2,000 sqft. One year prior, the average listing was 2,049 sqft.

VA Loan Features

  • No down payment required
  • Negotiable and competitive interest rate.
  • Ability to finance the VA funding fee (plus reduced funding fees with a down payment of at least 5 percent and exemption for veterans receiving VA compensation).
  • VA rules limit the amount you can be charged for closing costs.
  • Closing costs are comparable with other financing types (and may be lower).
  • Closing costs may be paid by the seller.
  • No private mortgage insurance premiums are required.
  • An assumable mortgage.
  • Right to prepay your mortgage without penalty.
  • For homes inspected by VA during construction, a warranty from builder and assistance from VA to obtain cooperation of builder.
  • VA assistance to veteran borrowers in default due to temporary financial difficulty.